Σάββατο, 24 Μαρτίου 2012

The Apocryphon of John (Nag Hammadi Codices)

 
Leonardo DA VINCI (1452-1519) Salvator Mundi

The Apocryphon of John

Translated by Michael Waldstein and Frederik Wisse
The Apocryphon of John: Synopsis of Nag Hammadi Codices II,1;III,1; And IV,1 With BG 8502,2,
Brill Academic Pub, 1995

1 The teaching [of the Savi]or and the re[vel]ation of the mysteries [together with the things] hidden in silence a[nd those (things) w]hich he taught to Joh[n, his dis]ciple.

2 [Now] it happened one [d]ay when John [the brother] of James, the so[n]s of Ze[bed]ee, was going up to the temple, a [Pha]risee named Arimanios [appr]oached him. And he said to him, "Where is your teacher, the one whom you used to follow?"

I [said] to him, "He returned to the pla[ce] from which he came." The Pharisee [said to me, "This Nazorene] deceived you (pl.) with error. He filled [your (pl.) ears with lies], and he shut [your hearts. He turned you (pl.)] from the tradi[tions of your fathers."

When I, John,] heard] these things, [I turned] from the temp[le to a mountainous and desert place] and I grieved [greatly in my heart, asking] "How [was the Savior appointed?"] and "Why was he sent [into the world] by h[is father? Who is his] father who [sent him? And of what sort] is [that] aeon [to which we will go?] For what did he slay about it? He told us] that the aeon to which [we will go is mo]deled on the [indestructible] aeon, [but he did not tea]ch us abou[t what sort] the latter is.]"

3 Just th[en, while I was thinking these things, behold the [heavens opened, and] the [whole] crea[tion] below the heaven [was] illuminated. And [the world] quaked.

[I] was [afraid and behold] in the light [I] saw [a child stand]ing by me. When I sa[w him, he becam]e like an old person and he shifted hi]s semblance, becoming like a servant. These (semblances) before me were not multiple beings but there was only a (single) [li]keness [having] many forms in the lig[ht]. And the [semblances] appeared through each other, a[nd] the [semblan]ce had three forms.

[He] said to me, "John, Jo[h]n, why do you doubt and why [are you] fearful? Are [you] are a stranger to this likeness?—This is to say, do not [be] faint[hea]rted! I am the one who [dwells with you (pl.)] al­ways. I [am the Father. I am] the Mother. I am the So[n]. I am the one who is undefiled and unpolluted.

[Now I have come to teach] you what exists [and what has come into being an]d what must [come into being so that you will understand the] things which are not apparent [and those which are apparent, and to teach] you about the [immovable] genera[tion of] the perfe[ct Human.

N]ow [then lift up] your [face so that] you will [receive] the things that [I will teach you] today [and you will tell them to your fellow] spirits who c[ome from the immovable] generation of the perfect Human.

4 And [I asked so that I might [know.

And he said] to me, "The Monad [is a mo]narch[y with]out anything existing over it. [It exists as the God] and Father of the [A]ll, the [invisi]ble which dwells above [the All, ...] imperishableness which exi[sts as the] pure light upon which it is not possible for any eye to] gaze.

[It is the] invisible [Spirit], and It is not appropriate [to consider It] to be like the g[o]ds or that It is something similar. For It is more than divine, [without anything] existing over It. For nothing lords [over It].

[. . .] not [...] in an[yth]ing less [... exists in It.

It alone [is eternal] since It does not need [anything.] For It is totally perfect. [It] does not [lack] anything such that [anything] would perfect It, [but] It is [al]ways completely perfect in [light]. It cannot be [limi]ted because there is nothing [before It] to limit It. [It is] inscrut[able because there] is no one who exists before It [to scrutinize It.] [It is im]measurable because there is nothing [which exists before It to measure] It. [It is] in[visible because there is] no one to see [It. It is an eternity existing] eternally. [It is ineffable because] there is no one able to comprehend It in order to sp[eak about It.] It is [un]nameable because [there is no one before It] to name [It.] It is [the immeasurable light,] which is pure, [holy, and unpolluted. It is in]effable [being perfect i]n incorruptibility. (It does) [not] (exist) in per[fection], blessed[ness, or] divini[ty] but It is [far] superior (to these).

It is neither corporeal [nor in]corporeal. [It] is not large or small. [It is not] such that one could [say] that It has quantity or [quality]. For it is not possible for anyone [to know It]. It is not something among [existing things, but It is] far [super]ior—[not] as [being superior] (to others as though It is comparable to them) but as that which belongs to Itself. It does [not partici]pate in the aeons or in time (as a constitutive part of them). For that which participates i[n an aeon] was first prepared (by others). It was [not given a p]ortion in time [because] It does not receive anything [from anoth]er- for [whatever] It received would be received as a loan. For what exists prior] to anything else is not deficient such that It should receive [from anything].

For this one gazes marveling at Itself [alone] in Its light. [...] For It is a vastness. [It possesses the immeasurable [simpli]city. [It is] an aeo[n gi]ving aeon, life giving [life, a ble]ssed one giving blessedness, a knowledge giving understanding, a goo[d one giving] goodness. It is mer[cy giving] mercy and salvation. It is grace giving grac[e—not] such that it possesses it but that It gives.

5 [How am I to speak] with you about the immeasurable, incomprehen[sible light]? [For] Its [aeon] is indestructible, being tranquil [and] existing in [silence, being at rest]. It exists prior [to the All, for] It is the he[a]d of [all] the aeons [and] It gives them strength in Its goodness.

For we do not [understand these ineffable matters, and] none of us knows those [immeasurable] things ex[cept for] the one who appeared from the Father. This is the one who [spoke to us alone].

For (It is) the one who gazes at Itself [alone] in Its light that surrounds [It], which is the spring of the living water.

And It provides for [all] the ae[ons].

And in every way It ga[zes upon] Its image, seeing it in the spring of the Spirit, willing in Its light-w[ater which is in the spri]ng of the pure light[-water which] surrounds It.

And [Its thinking became a] thing. And she who ap[pea]red in Its presence in [the lu]min[escence of] Its light was revealed. She is the first [power who came into] being before them a[ll.. She appeared] from Its thought, [the Pronoia of the All], her light [. . .] light, the [perfect] power, that is, [the image of the perfect invisible virginal Spirit, [the first po]wer, the glory of Barbelo, the glory which is perfect in the aeons, the glory of the revelation.

[She] glorified the virginal Spirit and praised It since she had appeared because of It. That one is the first Thought (Protennoia) of Its image. She became a womb for the All because she is prior to them all, the Mother-Father, the first Human, the holy Spirit, the triple male, the triple power, the triple named androgyne, and the eternal aeon among the invisible ones, and the first to come forth.

6 Barbelo requested the invisible virginal Spirit to give her Fo[re]kn[ow]ledge. And the Spirit stared. When [It stared], Fore­knowledge was revealed [an]d stood with [P]ronoia. She is from] the Thought of the invisible [vir]ginal Spirit. She glorified It a[nd] Its perfect power [Ba]rbelo, fo[r] it was b[eca]use of her that she had come into being.

A[nd again she reque[st]ed (It) to give her In[destr]uct[ibility]. And It stared. And in [Its staring], Indest[ruct]ibility [was revealed. And she stood with Thought and Foreknowledge. She glorified the Invisible one and Barbelo, for they had come into being because of her.

And Barbelo requested (It) to give her Ete[r]nal L[ife]. And the in[v]isible Spirit stared. And in Its staring, Eternal Life was revealed. And [they s]to[od]. They glorified the invisible [Spit]it and Barbelo, for they had come into being because of her.

And again she asked (It) to give to her Truth. And the invisible Spirit stared. Truth was revealed. And they stood. They glorified the invisible Spirit who was approving and his Barbelo, for they had come into being because of her.

This is the pentad of the Aeons of the Father, who is the first Human, the image of the invisible Spirit. This is Pronoia, namely: Barbelo, Thought, Foreknowledge, Indestructibility, Eternal Life, and Truth. This is the androgynous pentad of the Aeons which is the decad of Aeons, the Father.

7 And It gazed into Barbelo in the pure light which surrounds the invisible Spirit and Its luminescence, and she conceived from It. It begot a spark of light in a light resembling blessedness, but it was [not] equal to Its greatness. This one was only-begotten of the Mother‑Father who had appeared. He is his only offspring, the only-begotten of the Father, the pure light.

Then the invisible virginal Spirit rejoiced over the light [which] had come into being, that one who first appeared from the first power of Its Pronoia, which is Barbelo. And It [an]ointed him from Its own goodness/Christhood until he became perfect, not lacking anything of [good]ness/[Christ]hood because It had anointed him in the [goo]d[ness/[Chri]st[ho]od of the invisible Spirit. And he stood in Its presence while It poured upon him. A[nd] im[medi]ately when he had received from the Sp[irit, he] gl[or]ified the holy Spirit and the perfect Pro[n]oia, for he had been revealed because of her. And he asked to be given a fellow worker, which is Mind. And It stared. And in the invisible Spirit's act of staring, Mind was revealed. And he stood with Christ, glorifying him and Barbelo, for all these came into being in silence.

And Thought willed to create a work through the Word of the invisible Spirit, and his Will became a work. And he was revealed with Mind and Light, glorifying It. And the Word followed the Will. For because of the Word, Christ the divine Autogenes created the All. Eternal Life with Will, and Mind with Foreknowledge stood. They glorified the invisible Spirit and Barbelo for they had come into being because of her.

And the holy Spirit perfected the divine Autogenes, the son of Itself and Barbelo, so he might stand before the great and invisible virginal Spirit. The divine Autogenes, the Christ, (is) that one who honored It with a mighty voice. He appeared through the Pronoia. And the invisible virginal Spirit placed Autogenes as true god over the All and It subjected to him all authority and the truth which dwells in It so that he might know the All. (He is) that one whose name they call by a name which is more exalted than any name. For they will say that name to those who are worthy of it.

8 For from the light, which is the Christ, and Indestructibility, through the gift of the Spirit, he gazed out so as to cause the four Lights from the divine Autogenes to stand before him.

And the three (are): Will, Thought, and Life. And the four powers are: Understanding, Grace, Perception, and Prudence. Now it is Grace which dwells in the Light Aeon Armozel, who is the first angel. And three other Aeons are with this Aeon: Grace, Truth, Form. And the second Light Oriael is the one who was established over the second Aeon. And three other Aeons are with him: Pronoia, Perception, Memory. And the third Light is Daveithai, the one who was established over the third Aeon. And the three other Aeons with him are: Understanding, Love, and Likeness. And the fourth Aeon was established over the fourth Light Eleleth. And the [th]ree Aeons with him are: Perfection, Peace, Wisdom. These are the four Lights who stand before the divine Autogenes. These are the twelve Aeons which stand before the Son of the great Autogenes Christ, through the will and the gift of the invisible Spirit. And the twelve Aeons belong to the Son of [A]utogenes.

9 And the All was firmly founded through the will of the holy Spirit, through Autogenes. And from the Foreknowledge of the perfect Mind through the revelation of the will of the invisible Spirit and the will of Autogenes, the invisible Spirit named the perfect Human, the first revelation and the truth, Pigera-Adamas.

And It set him up over the first Aeon with the great Autogenes Christ, beside the first Light, Armozel. And Its powers dwelled with him.

And the Invisible one gave him an unconquerable intellectual power. And he spoke and glorified and praised the invisible Spirit, saying, Because of you the All came into being and it is to you that the All will return. And I will praise and glorify you and Autogenes with the three Aeons: the Father, the Mother, the Child, the perfect power.' And It set up his Child Seth over the second Aeon beside the second Light Oroiel. And in the third Aeon were set up the seed of Seth over the third Light, Daveithai. And the holy souls were set up. In the fourth Aeon were set up the souls of those who were ignorant of the Fullness and did not repent immediately but they persisted a while. And afterward they repented. They dwelled beside the fourth Light Eleleth. These are the creatures who glorify the invisible Spirit.

10 Sophia of the Epinoia, being an Aeon, thought a thought from within herself and the thought of the invisible Spirit and Foreknowledge. She willed a likeness to appear from within herself without the will of the Spirit—It had not approved—and without her partner and without his consideration. For the countenance of her masculinity did not approve, and she had not found her partner. She deliberated apart from the will of the Spirit and the understanding of her partner. She brought forth.

Because of the unconquerable power within her, her thought did not remain idle. And an imperfect product appeared from her, and it was different from her pattern because she created it without her partner. And it was not patterned after the likeness of its Mother, for it had a different form. When she saw (the product of) her will, it was different, a model of a lion-faced serpent. His eyes were like flashing fires of lightning. She cast him out from her, outside of those places so that none among the immortals might see him, for she had created him in ignorance.

And she surrounded him with a luminous cloud. And she placed a throne in the midst of the cloud in order that no one might see him except the holy Spirit, who is called the mother of the living. She named him Yaltabaoth. This is the Chief Ruler, the one who got a great power from his Mother.

11 And he withdrew from her and he abandoned the place where he had been born. He seized (another place). He created for himself another aeon inside a blaze of luminous fire, which still exists now.

And he was stupefied in his Madness, the one who dwells within him, and he begat some authorities for himself.

The name of the first is Athoth, the one whom the generations call the [reaper]. The second is Harmas, who is [the eye] of envy. The third is Kalila-Oumbri. The fourth is Yabel. The fifth is Adonaiou, who is called Sabaoth. The sixth is Cain, whom the generations of humanity call the sun. The seventh is Abel. The eighth is Abrisene. The ninth is Yobel. The tenth is Armoupieel. The eleventh is Melcheir-Adonein. The twelfth is Belias; he is the one who is over the depth of Hades.

And he set up seven kings over the seven heavens, one per firmament of heaven, and five over the depth of the abyss so that they might rule.

12 And he divided his fire among them, but he did not send them (anything) from the power of the light which he had received from his Mother. For he is ignorant darkness. When the light mixed with the darkness, it caused the darkness to shine, but when the darkness mixed with the light, it darkened the light, so that it became neither light nor dark, but it was weak.

Now this weak ruler has three names. The first name is Yaltabaoth. The second is Saklas. The third is Samael. He is impious in his Madness, she who dwells in him. For he said, 'I am God and no other god exists except me,' since he is ignorant of the place from which his strength had come.

And the Rulers created seven powers for themselves. And the powers created for each of them six angels until they had produced 365 angels.

These are the bodies of the names: The first is Athoth; he has a sheep's face. The second is Eloaiou; he has a donkey's face. The third is Astaphaios; he has a hyena's face. The fourth is Yao; he has a serpent's face with seven heads. The fifth is Sabaoth; he has a serpent's face. The sixth is Adonin; he has a monkey's face. The seventh is Sabbede; he has a fiery face which shines. This is the hebdomad of the week.

But Yaldabaoth possessed a multitude of faces, adding up to more than all of them, so that when he is in the midst of the seraphim, he could masquerade in front of them all at will.

13 He shared with them (portions) from his fire.

Because of the power of the glory which dwells in him from the light of his Mother, he became Lord over them. Because of that, he called himself God, and he was not obedient to the place from which he had come.

And he mixed with the authorities who dwell with him. Through his thinking and his speaking, seven powers came into being. And he named the powers one after another, beginning with the highest (as follows): First is Goodness/Christhood with the first (authority) Athoth. The second is Pronoia with the second one Eloaio. The third is Divinity with the third one Astraphaio. The fourth is Lordship with the fourth one Yao. The fifth is kingdom with the fifth one Sabaoth. The sixth is Envy with the sixth one Adonein. The seventh is Understanding with the seventh Sabbateon. For these are those who have a firmament corresponding to each aeon. These were named according to the glory of those who belong to heaven for the destr[uction of the] power[s]. The names which they were given by the Chief Begetter had power in them, but the names which were given to them according to the glory of those who belong to heaven are for them destruction and powerlessness. Thus they have two names.

He ordered everything following the likeness of the first Aeons, which had come into being, so that he might create them in the indestructible pattern. Not because he had seen the indestructible ones, but the power in him which he had gotten from his Mother bore in him the likeness of the world.

14 And when he saw the creation which surrounded him and the multitude of the angels surrounding him who had came into being from him, he said to them, 'I am a jealous God and no other god exists beside me.' But his proclamation indicated to the angels who dwell with him that another God does exist. For if there were not another who exists, of whom would he be jealous?

The Mother began to wander. She understood her deficiency when the brightness of her light was diminished and she was darkened, because her partner had not been in concord with her."

But I said, "Lord, what does it mean 'she wandered'?"

He smiled and said, `Do not think it means as Moses said 'upon the waters.' But in fact, when she saw the evil which had happened and the theft which her offspring had committed, she repented and she was overcome with forgetfulness in the darkness of ignorance. And she began to be ashamed. [She did not dare] to return but [she was ...] in motion. This movement is the wandering.

The Arrogant one had gotten a power from his Mother. For he was ignorant, thinking that no one existed except his Mother alone. And seeing the multitude of the angels whom he had created, he then exalted himself over them.

And when the Mother understood that the garment of darkness was not perfect, she then understood that her partner had not been in concord with her. She repented with great weeping.

And the entreaty of her repentance was heard and all the Fullness praised the invisible virginal Spirit on her behalf. The holy Spirit poured over her (something) from their entire Fullness. For her partner did not come to her (by himself), but it was through the Fullness that he came to her in order that he might correct her deficiency. Yet even so, she was not conveyed to her own Aeon, but (was placed) above her child so that she might dwell in the Ninth until she corrects her deficiency.

15 And a voice came from the exalted heavenly Aeon, The Human exists and the Child of the Human.' The Chief Ruler, Yaltabaoth, heard it, but he thought that the voice had come from his Mother, and he did not understand where it had come from.

And the holy and perfect Mother-Father, the perfect Pronoia, the image of the Invisible, who is the Father of the All, in whom the All came into being, the first Human, taught them by revealing his likeness in a male model.

The Aeon of the Chief Ruler trembled all over and the foundations of the abyss quaked. And upon the waters which dwell under matter, the underside was [illum]ined by the ap[pearance] of his image which had been revealed. And when all the authorities and the Chief Ruler stared (on the water), they saw all the region below which was shining. And by the light, they saw the model of the image upon the water.

And he said to the authorities who dwell with him, 'Come, let us create a human according to the image of God and according to our likeness so that his image might illuminate us.' And they created (using) the power from each of them according to the characteristics which they had been given.

And each one of the authorities supplied for (the human's) soul a characteristic corresponding to the model of the image which he had seen. He created a real being in accordance with the likeness of the perfect first Human. And they said, 'Let us call him Adam in order that his name might become a power of light for us.'

And the powers began (their work): The first one, Goodness, created a bone-soul. The second one, Pronoia, created a sinew-soul. The third one, Divinity, made a flesh-soul. The fourth one, Lordship, made a marrow-soul. The fifth one, Kingdom, made a blood-soul. The sixth one, Envy, created a skin-soul. The seventh Understanding, created a hair-soul.

The multitude of the angels stood before him. They received the seven substances of the soul from the powers so that they might create the harmony of the parts and the harmony of the limbs and the proper combination of each of the parts.

16 The first began to create (starting) from the head. Eteraphaope Abron created its head. Megiggesstroeth created the brain. Asterechmen, the right eye. Thaspomocham, the left eye. Yeronumos, the right ear. Bissoum, the left ear. Akiopeim, the nose. Banen Ephroum, the lips. Amen, the teeth. Ibikan, the molars. Basiliasdeme, the tonsils. Achcha, the uvula. Adaban, the neck. Chaaman, the vertebrae. Dearcho, the throat. Tebar, the right shoulder. N[. . . the] left shoulder. Mniarchon, the right elbow. [... the] left elbow. Abitrion, the right underarm. Evanthen, the left underarm. Krys, the right hand. Beluia, the left hand. Treneu, the fingers of the right hand. Balbel, the fingers of the left hand. Kriman, the fingernails. Astrops, the right breast. Barroph, the left breast. Baoum, the right shoulder joint. Ararim, the left shoulder joint. Areche, the belly. Phthave, the navel. Senaphim, the abdomen. Arachethopi, the right ribs. Zabedo, the left ribs. Barias, the right hip. Phnouth, the left hip. Abenlenarchei, the marrow. Chnoumeninorin, the bones. Gesole, the stomach. Agromauma, the heart. Bano, the lungs. Sostrapal, the liver. Anesimalar, the spleen. Thopithro, the intestines. Biblo, the kidneys. Roeror, the sinews. Taphreo, the spine of the body. Ipouspoboba, the veins. Bineborin, the arteries. Aatoimenpsephei, theirs are the breaths which are in all the parts. Entholleia, all the flesh. Bedouk, the right buttock (?). Arabeei, the left , the penis. Eilo, the testicles. Sorma created the genitals. Gorma Kaiochlabar, the right thigh. Nebrith, the left thigh. Pserem, the kidneys (muscles?) of the right side. Asaklas, the left kidney (muscle). Ormaoth, the right knee. Emenun, the left knee. Knyx, the right shin. Tupelon, the left shin. Achiel, the right ankle. Phneme, the left ankle. Phiouthrom, the right foot. Boabel, its toes. Trachoun, the left foot. Phikna, its toes. Miamai, the toenails. Labernioum <...>.

And seven were appointed over all these: Athoth, Armas, Kalila, Yabel, Sabaoth, Cain, Abel.

17 And those who animate the parts are, according to parts: the head, Diolimodraza. The neck, Yammaeax. The right shoulder, Yakoubib. The left shoulder, Verton. The right hand, Oudidi. The left, Arbao. The fingers of the right hand, Lampno. The fingers of the left hand, Leekaphar. The right breast, Barbar. The left breast, Imae. The chest, Pisandraptes. The right shoulder joint, Koade. The left shoulder joint, Odeaor. The right ribs, Asphixix. The left ribs, Synogchouta. The belly, Arouph. The womb, Sabalo. The right thigh, Charcharb. The left thigh, Chthaon. All. the genitals, Bathinoth. The right knee, Choux. The left knee, Charcha. The right shin, Aroer. The left shin, Toechtha. The right ankle, Aol. The left ankle, Charaner. The right foot, Bastan. Its toes, Archentechtha. The left foot, Marephnounth. Its toes, Abrana.

Seven, 7, [have power] over all of these: Michael, Ouriel, Asmenedas, Saphasatoel, Aarmouriam, Richram, Amiorps.

And those who are over the senses, Archendekta. And the one over the perception, Deitharbathas. And the one over the imagination, Oummaa. And the one over the assent, Aachiaram. And the one over the whole impulse, Riaramnacho.

And the source of these demons who are in the whole body is fixed as four: heat, cold, wetness, dryness. And the mother of them all is matter. The one who rules over the heat, Phloxpha. The one who rules over the cold, Oroorrothos. The one who rules over what is dry, Erimacho. The one who rules over the wetness, Athuro. The mother of all these, Onorthochrasaei who is limitless, stands in their midst and she mixes with them all. And truly she is matter, for they are nourished by her.

Ephememphi is the one who belongs to pleasure. Yoko is the one who belongs to desire. Nenentophni is the one who belongs to grief. Blaomen is the one who belongs to fear. The mother of them all is Esthensis Ouch Epiptoe. The passions come into being from these four demons. From grief (comes) envy, jealousy, suffering, trouble, pain, heartlessness, anxiety, mourning, and the rest. And from pleasure comes much wickedness and empty boasting and similar things. From desire (comes) anger, wrath, bitterness, bitter yearning, insatiable greed and similar things. From fear (comes) panic, flattery, anguish, shame. These all resemble virtues as well as vices. The insight into their true character is Anaro, who is the head of the material soul which dwells with the seven senses Ouch Epiptoe. This is the number of the angels: altogether they are 365. They all labored on it until, part by part, the psychic and material body was completed. Now others whom I have not mentioned to you rule over the rest.

If you want to know about them, it is written in the Book of Zoroaster.

And all the angels and demons labored until they had created the psychic body.

18 And their product was completely inactive and motionless for a long time.

But when the Mother wanted to retrieve the power which she had given to the Chief Ruler, she entreated the Mother-Father of the All, the one who possesses great mercy. Following the holy design, he sent the five Lights down to the place of the angels of the Chief Ruler. They advised him with the goal of extracting the power of the Mother.

And they said to Yaldabaoth, 'Breathe into his face by your spirit and his body will arise.' And into his face he blew his spirit, which is the power of his Mother. He did not understand because he dwells in ignorance. And the power of the Mother left Yaldabaoth and went into the psychic body that they had made according to the likeness of the one who exists from the beginning. The body moved and gained power, and it was luminous.

And in that moment, the rest of the powers became jealous for it was because of them all that he had come into being and they had given their power to the human.

Yet his understanding was stronger than those who had made him and greater even than the Chief Ruler. When they understood that he was luminous, could think better than they did, and was naked of evil, they picked him up and threw him down into the lowest part of all matter.

But the Blessed one, the Mother-Father, the beneficent and merciful, had mercy upon the Mother's power that had been brought forth from the Chief Ruler lest yet again they might have power over the psychic and perceptible body. So through his beneficent Spirit and his great mercy, he sent a helper to Adam. She is a luminous Epinoia, who is from him (and) who was called Life. It is she who aids the whole creation by toiling with him, guiding him by correction toward his fullness, and teaching him about the descent of the seed and teaching him about the path of ascent, the path which it had come down. The Epinoia of the light was hidden in Adam in order that the rulers might not know, but Epinoia existed as a correction for the deficiency of the Mother.

19 And the human appeared because of the shadow of the light which exists within him. And his thought was superior to all those who had created him. When they looked up, they saw that his thought was superior, and they took counsel with the whole host of the rulers and the angels. They took some fire, earth, and water. They mixed them together with each other and the four fiery winds. And they wrought them together and made a great disturbance.

And they enclosed him in the shadow of death in order that they might yet again form from earth, water, fire, and spirit a thing from matter, which is the ignorance of the darkness, desire, and their counterfeit spirit. This is the tomb of the molding of the body with which the robbers clothed the human, the chain of forgetfulness. And he came to be a mortal human.

This is the one who came down first and the first partition. The Epinoia of the light who was in him is the one who will awaken his thinking.

20 And the Rulers took him and they placed him in paradise. And they said to him, 'Eat that is in idleness. For indeed their delight is bitter and their beauty is licentious. For their delight is deception and their trees are impiety. And their fruit is an incurable poison and their promise is death. And in the midst of paradise, they planted the tree of their life.

But I, I will teach you what the mystery of their life is, the plan they made with each other, the likeness of their spirit.

Its root is bitter and its branches are deaths. Its shade is hate and deception dwells in its leaves. And its blossom is the anointment of evil. And its fruit is death, and desire is its seed, and it blossoms from the darkness. The dwelling place of those who taste from it is Hades, and the dark is their resting place.

But what they call 'the tree of the knowledge of what is good and evil' is the Epinoia of the light. They (the rulers) remained in front of it in order that he might not look up to his fullness and come to know the nakedness of his shamefulness. But as for me, I set them right so that they would eat."

And I said to the Savior, "Lord, was it not the snake who taught Adam so that he would eat?"

The Savior laughed and said, "The snake taught them to eat from a wicked desire to sow which belongs to destruction, in order that he (Adam) would become useful to it. And it knew that he was disobedient to it because the light of Epinoia dwelled in him, making him more correct in his thinking than the Chief Ruler.

21 And he wanted to bring out the power which he had given to him. And he brought a trance upon Adam."

And I said to the Savior, "What is the trance?"

He said, "It is not as Moses wrote as you heard. For he said in his first book that he laid him down in sleep, but rather it concerned his sensibility. For indeed it is said by the prophet, 'I will make their hearts heavy so that they might neither give heed nor see.'

Then the Epinoia of the light hid in him.

And the Chief Ruler wanted to bring her from his rib. But the Epinoia of the light is not graspable. Although the dark pursued her, it did not lay hold of her.

And he brought forth a part of his power from him (Adam). And he created another molded form in a woman's shape according to the image of Epinoia who had appeared to him. And into the molded form of womanhood he put the part which he had taken from the power of the human— not 'his rib' as Moses said. And he saw the woman beside him.

Immediately, the luminous Epinoia appeared for she had uncovered the veil which had been on his understanding. He became sober from the drunkenness of the darkness and he recognized his likeness. And he said, 'Now this is bone from my bones and flesh from my flesh. Because of this, man will leave his father and his mother and he will cling to his wife and they will no longer be two but a single flesh.' For his partner will be sent to him and he will leave his father and his mother.

It is our sister Sophia who came down in innocence in order that she might correct her deficiency. Because of this she was called Zoe (Life), the mother of the living by Pronoia of the authority of heaven and [...] to him [. . .]. And through her they tasted the perfect knowledge.

In the form of an eagle, I appeared on the tree of knowledge, which is the Epinoia from the pure, luminous Pronoia, so that I might teach them and awaken them from the depth of the sleep. For they were both in a fallen state and they recognized their nakedness. Epinoia appeared to them as light, awakening their thought.

22 But when Yaldabaoth knew that they had withdrawn from him, he cursed his earth. He found the female preparing herself for her male. He was lord over her, for he did not understand the mystery which had come to pass from the holy design. And they were afraid to blame him. And he revealed his ignorance that dwelled in him to his angels. And he cast them out of paradise and he clothed them with a dark gloom.

And the Chief Ruler saw the virgin who stood beside Adam and that the living luminous Epinoia appeared in her. And Yaldabaoth was filled with ignorance.

When the Pronoia of the All knew, she sent some beings and they snatched Zoe from Eve. And the Chief Ruler defiled her. And he begat two sons from her. The first is Eloim and the second is Yawe. Eloim has a bear face while Yawe has a lion face. The one is righteous while the other is unrighteous. (IV Yawe is righteous, but Eloim is unrighteous.) He set Yawe over the fire and the wind, while he set Eloim over water and earth. He named these Cain and Abel with trickery in mind.

Now up to the present day, intercourse has continued from the Chief Ruler. And he planted a seed of desire in her who belongs to Adam. From intercourse he caused birth in the likeness of bodies and he supplied them from his counterfeit spirit. He set two rulers over the principalities so that they might rule over the tomb.

When Adam perceived the likeness of his own foreknowledge, he begot the likeness of the Child of the Human; he called him Seth following the way of the generation in the aeons.

Likewise the Mother also sent down her Spirit in the likeness of the female being who is like her, as a counterpart to she who is in the Fullness, so that she might prepare a dwelling place for the aeons that were going to descend.

And they were made to drink water of forgetfulness by the Chief Ruler so that they would not know themselves (and would not know) where they had come from.

And the seed existed like this for while: providing assistance, so that when the Spirit descends from the holy aeons, it will correct (the seed) and heal it from the deficiency so that the entire Fullness might become holy and without deficiency."

23 I said to the Savior, "Lord, will all the souls be delivered into the pure light"?

He replied, saying to me, "These are great things that have arisen in your thinking. For it is difficult to disclose these things to any others except those who are from the immovable generation. Those upon whom the Spirit of the Life will descend and (with whom) it will be powerfully present, they will be saved and will become perfect. And they will become worthy of the great realms. And they will be purified in that place from all evil and the concerns of wickedness. Then they will not take care for anything except the imperishability alone, attending to it from this point on without anger or envy or jealousy or desire or greed of anything at all. For they are not restrained by anything except the reality of the flesh alone, which they bear while fervently awaiting the time when they will be visited by those who will receive (them). For such as these are worthy of the imperishable eternal life and the calling, enduring everything, bearing everything so that they might complete the contest and inherit eternal life."

I said to him, "Lord, will the souls of those upon whom the power of the Spirit of Life descended but who did not do these works be e[xcluded]?"

He repli[ed, s]aying to me, "If [the] Spirit descends [up]on them, they will be saved in any case, and they will migrate. For the power will descend upon every human being—for without it, no one is able to stand upright. After they are born, then if the Spirit of Life increases and the power comes to strengthen that soul, it is not possible to lead it astray into the works of wickedness. But those upon whom the counterfeit spirit descends are drawn by it and they are led astray."

I said, "Lord, then when the souls of those leave their flesh, where will they go to??

He laughed and said to me, "The soul in which the power will become stronger than the despicable spirit— for this one (the soul) is powerful and it flees from evil— it will be saved by the visitation of the Incorruptible and it will be admitted into the repose of the aeons.

I said, "Lord, then where will the souls be who do not know to whom their souls belong?"

He said to me, "In those, the despicable spirit has proliferated by leading them astray. He burdens the soul and draws it into works of wickedness, and he casts it down into forgetfulness. After it comes forth, they hand it over to the authorities who came into being through the Ruler. And they bind it in chains and cast it into prison. And they consort with it until it awakens from forgetfulness and receives knowledge. And in this way, it is perfected and saved."

I said, "Lord, how does the soul become smaller and return back into the nature of its mother or the human?"

Then he rejoiced when I asked this, and he said to me, "Truly you are blessed, for you have understood! That soul is made to follow another who has the Spirit of Life in it. It is saved by that (other) one. Then it is not cast into another flesh."

And I said, "Lord, what about those who understood and yet turned away? Where will their souls go?"

Then he said to me, "They will be admitted into that place where the angels of poverty go, the place where repentance does not occur. And they will guard them until that day when those who have blasphemed against the Spirit will be tortured. And they will be punished with an eternal punishment."

24 I said, "Lord, where did the despicable spirit come from?"

Then he said to me, "(It all began when) the Mother-Father whose mercy is great, the Spirit who is holy in every respect, the compassionate, and who troubles herself with you, that is, the Epinoia of the luminous Pronoia awakened the seed of the perfect generation and its thinking and the eternal light of the Human. When the Chief Ruler knew that they surpassed him in excellence—for their thoughts were higher than his— he wanted to restrict their planning, for he was ignorant that they excelled him in thinking and that he would not be able to restrict them. He made a plan with his authorities, that is, his powers. Together they committed adultery with Sophia. And through them was begotten bitter Fate, which is the last of the counterfeit chains. And it is such that (it makes) each one different from every other. And it is painful and it oppresses that (soul) since the gods and angels and demons and all the generations have intermingled with it up to the present day. For from that Fate appeared every iniquity and injustice and blasphemy and the fetter of forgetfulness and ignorance and every harsh command and severe sins and great fears. And this is how they made the whole creation blind so that they might not know the God who is above them all. And because of the fetter of forgetfulness, their sins were hidden. For they were bound with measures and times and seasons—for it (Fate) was lord over them all.

And he had regrets about everything which had come into being through him. Again he planned to bring a flood over the human creation.

But the greatness of the light of Pronoia taught Noah. And he preached to the whole offspring, that is, the children of the humans. But those who were strangers to him did not listen to him. It is not like Moses said that they hid themselves in an ark, but they were hidden — not only Noah, but many other people from the immovable generation.

They entered a place. They were hidden in a luminous cloud. And he understood his authority. And she who belongs to the light was with him for she illumined them, for he had brought darkness upon the whole earth.

25 And he created a plan with his powers. He sent his angels to the daughters of men so that they might take some of them for themselves, and they might raise a seed, to be a respite for them. And at first they were not successful, but when they did not succeed, they gathered together again and made another plan. They created a despicable spirit in the likeness of the Spirit who had descended so that through it they might pollute the souls.

And the angels changed their own likenesses into the likeness of each one's mate, filling them with the spirit of darkness, which they mixed with them and with wickedness.

They brought gold, silver, a gift, and copper and iron and metal and every sort of thing belonging to these classes. And they beguiled the human beings who had followed them into great troubles by leading them astray into much error.

They grew old without having enjoyment. They died without having found any truth and without having known the God of Truth. And thus the whole creation became enslaved forever, from the foundation of the world until now.

And they took women; they begot children out of darkness according to the likeness of their spirit. And their hearts became closed and hardened by the hardening of the despicable spirit until now.

26 Therefore I, the perfect Pronoia of the All, changed into my seed. For I existed from the first, traveling on every road. For I am the wealth of the light. I am the remembrance of the fullness. I traveled into the vastness of the dark, and I persevered until I entered the midst of the prison. And the foundations of chaos quaked. And I hid myself from them because of their evil, and they did not recognize me.

Again I returned for the second time and I traveled. I came forth into those who belong to the light, which is I, the remembrance of the Pronoia. I entered the midst of the dark and the inside of Hades, seeking to put my household in order. And the foundations of chaos quaked such that (it seemed) they would fall down upon those who dwell in the chaos and destroy them. And again I fled up to my luminous root so that they would not be destroyed before the time was right.

Still for a third time, I who am the light that exists in the light and the remembrance of the Pronoia, I traveled in order to enter into the midst of the darkness and the inside of Hades. I filled my countenance with the light of the consummation of their aeon. And I entered the midst of their prison, which is the prison of the body. And I said, 'Whoever hears, arise from lethargic sleep!'

And he wept, shedding tears; heavy tears he wiped from himself. And he said, 'Who is it who calls my name and from where does this hope come to me who am dwelling in the fetters of the prison?' And I said, `I am the Pronoia of the pure light; I am the thought of the virginal Spirit, the one who raises you to the place of honor. Arise and remember that you are the one who has heard, and follow your root, which is I, the compassionate. Fortify yourself against the angels of poverty and the demons of chaos and all those who ensnare you, and be watchful of the lethargic sleep and the garment of the inside of Hades.'

And I raised him up and sealed him with the light of the water with five seals so that death would not have power over him from this day on.

27 Behold, now I will go up to the perfect aeon. I have completed everything for you in your ears. I have told you ( John) all things so that you might write them down and give them in secret to your fellow spirits. For this is the mystery of the immoveable generation." And the Savior gave these things to him so that he might write them down and keep them secure.

And he said to him, "Cursed be any one who should exchange these things for a gift, whether for food or drink or clothing or anything else of this kind."

And these things were given to him in a mystery. And immediately he disappeared before him. And he (John) went to his fellow disciples. He related to them the things which the Savior had said to him.

Jesus Christ Amen.

Πέμπτη, 22 Μαρτίου 2012

Μήπως ο αντίχριστος έχει έρθει ήδη μέσα μας? / Perhaps the antichrist has already come within us;


Υπάρχουν ατελείωτες συζητήσεις, βιβλία και video που μας μιλούν για τον ερχομό του αντίχριστου.
Όμως αγαπητοί μου φίλοι, ας αναρωτηθούμε αν η ζωή μας είναι αρμονικά συνυφασμένοι με αυτό που στις γραφές αναφέρεται σαν Αγάπη , Φως και καλοσύνη, σαν φιλευσπλαχνία.

Μήπως περιμένοντας το κακό έξω από εμάς έχουμε επιτρέψει σε αυτό να βρει μια θέση ήδη μέσα στην καρδιά μας? 

Μήπως ο αντίχριστος έχει έρθει ήδη μέσα μας?

Πως? 

Μέσω της απληστίας , της ματαιοδοξίας, της ζήλιας , του μίσους , της κλοπής , της αδιαφορίας , του εγωισμού...

Αυτή η τόσο αρνητική για όλους εμάς ενέργεια, είναι ένα τρομερό ανόσιο πυρ το οποίο μας κατατρώει εσωτερικά διαλύοντας κάθε εσωτερική ποιότητα μέσα μας και πιθανή δυνατότητα που θα μπορούσε μελλοντικά να μας μετατρέψει σε έναν πνευματικό άνθρωπο, ωθώντας μας έτσι πιο κάτω σε μια υπο-ανθρώπινη κατάσταση.

Έτσι αυτό το απεχθές πυρ δεν καταστρέφει μόνο τους άλλους γύρω μας αλλά και εμάς τους ίδιους επίσης.

Η γνώση όλων αυτών των συμβάντων και η θερμή πίστη μας στο Φως της Αγάπης πρέπει να είναι η μόνη αντίδραση μας σ΄ αυτούς τους λιπόψυχους καιρούς.

Το Φως του Χριστού δεν μας ανακαινίζει μόνον αλλά ταυτόχρονα μας προσκαλεί , μας ωθεί μέσα στον κόσμο του πρωταρχικού βασιλείου.

Η ψυχή  που φτάνει σε ωρίμανση μετά από όλες αυτές τις ατελείωτες ενσαρκώσεις και οδυνηρές εμπειρίες, αισθάνεται βαθιά, γνωρίζει, ότι αυτός είναι και ο μοναδικός δρόμος που θα την απελευθερώσει πλήρως και θα την μετατρέψει σε Αγάπη, γιατί ο Χριστός είναι Αγάπη.

 *******

There are endless discussions, books and video that are talking about the coming of the antichrist.

But dear friends, let us ask ourselves if our lives are interwoven harmoniously with what the scriptures referred to us as love, light and goodness, like compassion.

Perhaps waiting for the evil outside ourselves we allow it to find a place already in our hearts;

Perhaps the antichrist has already come within us;

How;

Through greed, vanity, jealousy, hatred, theft, indifference, selfishness ...

This so negative for all us all energy, is a terrible unholy fire which devours us internal, dissolving every inner quality within us, and possible opportunity that could in the future transform us into a spiritual man, pushing us on the contrary much lower in a sub-human state of existence.

So this hateful fire not only destroys those around us but ourselves as well.

The knowing of all of these events and our strong faith towards the Light of Love should be our only response to these faint-hearted times we live in.

The Light of Christ not only renovate us but simultaneously invites us, prompts us into the world of the primary kingdom.

The soul that reaches maturity after all these endless incarnations and painful experiences, feels deeply, knows, that this is the only way that can fully liberate and transform it into love, because Christ is Love.

Τετάρτη, 21 Μαρτίου 2012

The Rosicrucian Emblems of Daniel Crame - Emblem 40



THE ROSICRUCIAN EMBLEMS OF 
DANIEL CRAMER: 

THE TRUE SOCIETY OF JESUS AND 
THE ROSY CROSS

Here are forty sacred emblems
from Holy Scripture concerning
the most precious name and cross of Jesus Christ


by Daniel Cramer
Master of Theology of Stettin
Translated from the Latin by Fiona Tait
Translation © 1991 by Fiona Tait
Introduction and Commentary by Adam McLean
Introduction and Commentary © 1991 by Adam McLean



Introduction


This almost unknown work by Daniel Cramer of his 40 sacred emblems should be recognized as a Rosicrucian item of great interest. This very rare book was published in 1617 at the height of the Rosicrucian publishing period, and only a year after the appearance of the Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosencreutz. Cramer received a short mention in A. E. Waite's Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, London, 1924, p. 234:
In 1616 Daniel Cramer, a Protestant theologian who taught at Wittenburg and Stettin, produced a tract entitled Societas Jesus et Rosae Crucis Vera.

Little is known of Cramer, but it seems that he was, as Waite suggests, a Protestant theologian, and published various works between 1595 and 1620 including Orations on the Most Sweet Name of Jesus, a work In Memory of the Birth of Martin Luther, an essay "Against the Jesuits," The Reward through Grace, and other books of a theological nature.

In addition to the heading of the title page in The True Society of Jesus and the Rosy Cross, there are also a number of internal Rosicrucian references relating the symbols of the rose, the heart, and the cross (in particular see Emblems 19, 22, and 31). The True Society of Jesus obviously has no direct connection with the Jesuits, the 'Society of Jesus' of St. Ignatius of Loyola, as Cramer's other writings show him to be a strong Lutheran Protestant. Indeed, one of his essays was entitled "Against the Jesuits." However, perhaps we can recognize a parallel between these emblems and the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola; it is quite possible that here Cramer was consciously trying to produce a series of spiritual exercises of a Protestant esoteric Christianity.

A further Rosicrucian connection is made through the publisher, Luca Jennis of Frankfurt. Jennis, who was connected with the well-known Rosicrucian publisher Theodorus de Bry, published many of the works of Michael Maier, Daniel Mylius, and other alchemical writers, and seems to have been particularly interested in publishing works using emblematic figures.

Early in the unfolding of Rosicrucian esotericism, a particular impulse arose for the ideas to be conveyed through symbols, and especially through long series of integrated symbols in the form of emblematic plates. The student had to work these symbols into his being through meditation so that he could grasp the whole series as a totality, seeing the various interrelationships between the different emblems and inwardly experiencing the process of the development of the symbols unfolded through the sequence. This was one of the ways in which the Rosicrucians revealed and yet kept secret their esotericism.

The Forty Sacred Emblems stands completely in contrast to Cramer's other writings. This series of 40 emblematic plates, each bearing a title together with a verse from the Bible and two lines in Latin, is especially connected with the heart. Cramer provided an extended meditative exercise of an esoteric Christianity based on the symbol of the heart. The heart, which is found in nearly all the plates, undergoes various processes and experiences through this cycle of 40 stages.

Thus we can see here an extended meditative Rosicrucian exercise working upon the heart-center of Man. In the Eastern Tantric tradition, the various centers of etheric forces within the body of Man were pictured as chakras or lotus flowers with various numbers of petals. The yogi meditated upon symbols and feelings associated with each of the petals of a particular chakra and thus gained awareness of the conscious use of these centers within Man's subtle body. We have here, in the Cramer Emblems, a Western parallel in this series of Rosicrucian meditative exercises that also open up the meditator to consciousness of the heart-center. These heart meditations also reveal the esoteric Christianity, which was the cornerstone of the Rosicrucian Mystery stream, for the Rosicrucians brought into the Western mystical tradition a definite current of esoteric Christianity. Thus we should see the Cramer Emblems as an important work, revealing an aspect of Rosicrucianism not always clearly perceived by commentators on the tradition.

The symbolism found in the 40 emblems is to some extent alchemical. In some plates we see the heart being placed in a furnace, in others it is weighed in a balance, at one stage various plant forms grow from its substance, and in others it is set free from various types of bondage and limitation.

These illustrations are very simple and communicate directly to the soul in contrast to many other series of emblems from the same period, which are often obscure and enigmatic and require a key to penetrate their mystery. The Cramer Emblems are a most approachable symbol system and it seems likely that this was intended as a popular book that would appeal to a wide audience, as the symbols are so archetypal and straightforward.

Perhaps we might draw a parallel between Daniel Cramer and another Protestant theologian, Johann Valentine Andreae, who is credited with writing the Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosencreutz. Both of these figures wrote ponderous theological tomes in the best Lutheran Protestant tradition, both were in some way drawn into the Rosicrucian movement, and both produced a particular piece of writing which stands in total contrast to their other works and which sought to popularize Rosicrucian esoteric philosophy -- Cramer with his most approachable Emblems, and Andreae with his entertaining story of the Chemical Wedding.

-ADAM McLEAN


*******


Dedicatory Epistle
To the highest and most illustrious
Prince and Lord
Philip II
Duke of Stettin, of the Pomeranians, Cassubans and the Vandals
Prince of Rugen, Count of Gutzonia, Ruler of the Provinces of Lwow and Butow.
To his most merciful Lord
Most high and illustrious wise Prince,


No one can be unaware of the great value placed upon the pictorial art by antiquity, unless he is clearly a stranger to reading the historians. For Pliny tells us (Book 35, Chapter I) that this art was once sought out for Kings and peoples, for the sake of those whom they thought worthy of being handed down in memory to posterity. Pliny also says that such great honor was accorded it, that nobles practiced it, and soon honorable men were taught it, not slaves, though this had always been forbidden. It is because of this art that Apelles hovers on men's lips, and Everlasting fame, on a wing that cannot tire, drives him on.

Who is there who does not know how pleasing this art has been, and still is, to Princes of our age? It is a joy, a most delightful and sweet exercise by men of talent. Who would [not] contemplate the medley of emblems represented by this art and consecrated to posterity, pleasing and skillful, by Jupiter!, as many outstanding men have employed their genius in this matter. For -- to say nothing of the hieroglyphic signs of the Egyptians, by which they depicted their wishes and intentions -- who does not wonder at and revere the labours of Alciati, Reusner and Claudius Pardinus on this study? Who does not perceive the certain, singular delight in them, while the learning is abstruse, concealed and hidden in them, like the fellow in the Comic poet, who contemplated she who reposed within the wax?

Pursuing the tracks of these men, the Reverend and most noble Master Daniel Cramer, S.S. Doctor of Theology, has shown the brilliance of his genius, although in a different subject, so far not touched upon by the rest, that is, a holy subject; and he has handed to me these emblems, which ought to be cut in copper and committed to the light. Just as he has a singular zeal and desire in putting forward these studies, so have I joyfully taken this work upon me. For I am persuaded that by new example he has gained all applause in this subject, not just because he mixes the useful with the pleasing, but because he has taken it from the pure streams of Israel.

Deservedly then, most high Prince, I have wished, and it is my duty, to dedicate all this work to your Highness, both because Master Cramer's bud of genius has been nourished and protected by the sun and splendor of none other but your Highness, and it seems not unreasonable to me it should wish to revisit its natural shores; and also, because I know these skillful exercises find favor with your Highness, and it has always been a particular specialty, as it were, of the Dukes of Pomerania, never to desist from promoting the arts and the cultivators of them.

Therefore your Highness receives this small gift with pleasure, especially for the sake of the Reverend Cramer; and since I have no incense, let him permit me to propriate with salt-cakes, and may the breath of your favor think it not unworthy to breathe on me, and my studies.
With this, I commend your Highness, together with your most illustrious family, to God, thrice-greatest, to thrive most happily, live long, and prosper to eternity.

From the Academy of Giessen, the eleventh of March, 1617.
Your serene Highness' most humble servant;
James Muller of Torgau.

TO THE READER


The fruit for us indeed is in our most holy Bible. The pagans thought that only in their own heathen writers existed emblems, mottoes, illustrated maxims, hieroglyphs. Correct then this opinion. Act so you may show that our field is not sterile. Rather reproach yourself at the negligence of the world, which cares less for the reading of the Bible than the writings of the Gentiles. If this my SOCIETY has achieved anything towards checking this error, I shall congratulate myself. I shall rejoice for you. Farewell, Christian reader, and if you are a Christian, take diligent care to read the Bible.


From the Academy at Stettin
the month of August, 1616.
D.C.D.


Preface

Frontispiece Prefatory to the Emblems of this Book
Devised and Cut in Copper by the
Most Learned and Skilled
Master James Muller
The Spirit that creates poetry moves within those
Who show weighty matters represented in pictures
For what is a picture, but a silent poem?
The name of each applies to both.
And who would deny to a painter what is allowed
Under the old law, to a poet?
You may here, with your first look, gaze on the emblems of the book;
The sculpted image teaches which are good, and which devout.

REDEMPTION

The fount of life, from whose bubbling spring full rivers flow,
Shows itself in the first shadow of a picture.
It is your bond, Sinner, destroyed on the Cross,
Which this flow from the blood of Christ quenches.
Since the Cross and the wave of salvation
Destroy your rich debt of sin, you will be redeemed.

RENEWAL

After, redeemed by the blood of Christ, you will be joyful,
And will busy yourself to know rightly the Word of God.
This Spirit will be a light to you, by its shining
You will truly know the heavenly commandments of God.
You will not fear the law, nor the anger and thunder of the law,
For the very favor of the Gospel blesses you.

SANCTIFICATION

Now that you have known Christ, by the shining lamp of heaven,
There has arisen in you thirst for the Good.
The heavenly cup refreshes you, so all desire
Within your heart drains away and perishes.
So, Sinner, do you still fear the thorns of the world?
You can go safely on the cruel thorns.

TRIUMPH

Full grace has received you into the number of the holy.
How suddenly does cruel death lay snares for you?
See, it attacks openly, pierces you with sharp spear.
But the heart strives to reach the heavenly home,
Though bright death stretches forth its consuming hand at it,
The heart, triumphing, overcomes in the name of Jesus.

HOPE OF GLORY

At last the Corpse-Goddess has covered your body and head,
Buried in the grave beneath the tomb,
And there exists on earth nothing more
Of what was you or your possessions.
Hope of life conquers when the dead flesh rises again,
As corn grows strong when brought to life.
And so, Reader, you have the work of death and life,
The embossings of the Holy page, and a short epigram.
These will be able to show and teach your mind
What your state was once and what it may become today.
You had been guilty of sin: Christ purifies all guilt
By the fount from his own side.
The Spirit illuminates all corners of the heart,
And renews you through the Gospel.
The heavenly drink calms the ferment of the heart,
Thus fortified you pass beyond the bloody weapons.
Death lays snares for the heart inscribed with the name of Jesus,
But, unharmed, it seeks the kingdoms of the sky.
Certain hope of heavenly salvation remains,
When new warmth frees the resurrected bones.
Do not doubt: all this is proved twice over;
Do you not see the proofs? Every angel has them.
The skillful craft of Muller has set out all these things,
Dear Reader, and given you them for viewing.
Why are you now amazed at the sculptings of Phidias' chisel?
To Muller rather than to Phidias, heaven comes.

To the most excellent and learned Master James Muller L.L. studious companion and dearest friend
You who marvel at the hand of Phidias, the brush of Appelles
The genius and skill of Zeuxis,
And others distinguished from the crowd,
Whose famous names, cherishing antiquity has inscribed with immortality,
Cease to wonder: it was relentless work raised them,
And caused them to hum upon the learned lips of men.
Let those who have superseded vain application and drudgery,
Press the former underfoot.
See, they show us a new example; inimitable by none,
Desired by many; emblems engraved for you.
These Muller has chiseled with judgment,
Taking only a little time, while he follows the allurement of genius,
To each, others have attributed an age,
To Muller but a few hours, yet his art is no less.
What they have done was by study, play and labor;
He, by an almost innate gift, has created this delight.
Geissen,
Christopher Witke
Saltquellensis
*******
 

Emblem 40
THUS I AM NOURISHED
"For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together." (Matthew 24:28)

SIC ALOR -- XL
Your eagle's heart and sight, my Christ, the corpse lives;
Where you have been, there shall I always be.

Δευτέρα, 19 Μαρτίου 2012

Purcell - The Fairy Queen / John Eliot Gardiner



 Disc 2 - 13. The plaint - O let me weep

O let me weep, for ever weep,
My Eyes no more shall welcome Sleep;
I'll hide me from the sight of Day,
And sigh, and sigh my Soul away.
He's gone, he's gone, his loss deplore;
And I shall never see him more. 

Purcell - The Fairy Queen / John Eliot Gardiner

The Fairy-Queen (1692; Purcell catalogue number Z.629) is a masque or semi-opera by Henry Purcell; a "Restoration spectacular". The libretto is an anonymous adaptation of William Shakespeare's wedding comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream. First performed in 1692, The Fairy-Queen was composed three years before Purcell's death at the age of 35. Following his death, the score was lost and only rediscovered early in the twentieth century.

Purcell did not set any of Shakespeare's text to music; instead he composed music for short masques in every act but the first. The play itself was also slightly modernised in keeping with seventeenth-century dramatic conventions, but in the main the spoken text is as Shakespeare wrote it. The masques are related to the play metaphorically, rather than literally. Many critics have stated erroneously that they bear no relationship to the play, but recent scholarship has shown that the opera, which ends with a masque featuring Hymen, the God of Marriage, was actually composed for the fifteenth wedding anniversary of William and Mary.

Growing interest in Baroque music and the rise of the countertenor contributed to the work's re-entry into the repertoire. The opera received several full-length recordings in the latter part of the 20th century and several of its arias, including "The Plaint" ("O let me weep"), have become popular recital pieces.

In July 2009, in celebration of the 350th anniversary of Purcell's birth, The Fairy-Queen was performed by Glyndebourne Festival Opera using a new edition of the score, prepared for The Purcell Society by Bruce Wood and Andrew Pinnock.

The Fairy-Queen was first performed on 2 May 1692 at the Queen's Theatre, Dorset Garden in London by the United Company. The author or at least co-author of the libretto was presumably Thomas Betterton, the manager of Dorset Garden Theatre, with whom Purcell worked regularly. This belief is based on an analysis of Betterton's stage directions.[2] A collaboration between several playwrights is also feasible. Choreography for the various dances was provided by Josias Priest, who also worked on Dioclesian and King Arthur, and who was associated with Dido and Aeneas.

A letter describing the original performance shows that the parts of Titania and Oberon were played by children of eight or nine. Presumably other fairies were also played by children; this affects our perspective on the staging.
Synopsis

Act 1

The first scene set to music occurs after Titania has left Oberon, following an argument over the ownership of a little Indian boy. Two of her fairies sing of the delights of the countryside ("Come, come, come, come, let us leave the town"). A drunken, stuttering poet enters, singing "Fill up the bowl". The stuttering has led many to believe the scene is based on the habits of Thomas d'Urfey. However, it may also be poking fun at Elkanah Settle, who stuttered as well and was long thought to be the librettist, due to an error in his 1910 biography.

The fairies mock the drunken poet and drive him away.

Act 2

It begins after Oberon has ordered Puck to anoint the eyes of Demetrius with the love-juice. Titania and her fairies merrily revel ("Come all ye songsters of the sky"), and Night ("See, even Night"), Mystery ("I am come to lock all fast"), Secrecy ("One charming night") and Sleep ("Hush, no more, be silent all") lull them asleep and leave them to pleasant dreams.
Act 3

Titania has fallen in love with Bottom (now equipped with his ass' head), much to Oberon's gratification. A Nymph sings of the pleasures and torments of love ("If love's a sweet passion") and after several dances, Titania and Bottom are entertained by the foolish, loving banter of two haymakers, Corydon and Mopsa.

Act 4

It begins after Titania has been freed from her enchantment, commencing with a brief divertissement to celebrate Oberon's birthday ("Now the Night", and the abovementioned "Let the fifes and the clarions"), but for the most part it is a masque of the god Phoebus ("When the cruel winter") and the Four Seasons (Spring; "Thus, the ever grateful spring", Summer; "Here's the Summer", Autumn; "See my many coloured fields", and Winter; "Now Winter comes slowly").

Act 5

After Theseus has been told of the lovers's adventures in the wood, it begins with the goddess Juno singing an epithalamium, "Thrice happy lovers", followed by a woman who sings the well–known "The Plaint" ("O let me weep"). A Chinese man and woman enter singing several songs about the joys of their world. ("Thus, the gloomy world", "Thus happy and free" and "Yes, Xansi"). Two other Chinese women summon Hymen, who sings in praise of married bliss, thus uniting the wedding theme of A Midsummer Night's Dream, with the celebration of William and Mary's anniversary.


The Fairy Queen libretto

Act I
Come, come, come, let us leave the Town
And in some lonely place,
Where Crouds and Noise were never known,
Resolve to spend our days.
In pleasant Shades upon the Grass
At Night our selves we'll lay;
Our Days in harmless Sport shall pass,
Thus Time shall slide away.

Drunken Poet:
Fill up the Bowl, then, &c.

1st Fairy, Chorus :
Trip it, trip it in a Ring;
Around this Mortal Dance, and Sing.

Poet:
Enough, enough,
We must play at Blind Man's Buff.
Turn me round, and stand away,
I'll catch whom I may.

1st Fairy, Chorus:
About him go, so, so, so,
Pinch the Wretch, from Top to Toe;
Pinch him forty, forty times,
Pinch till he confess his Crimes.

Poet:
Hold you damn'd tormenting Punk,
I do confess ?

Both Fairies:
What, what, &c.

Poet:
I'm Drunk, as I live Boys, Drunk.

Both Fairies:
What art thou, speak?

Poet:
If you will know it,
I am a scurvy Poet.

Chorus:
Pinch him, pinch him for his Crimes,
His Nonsense, and his Dogrel Rhymes.

Poet:
Hold! Oh! Oh1 Oh!

Both Fairies:
Confess more, more.

Poet:
I confess, I'm verypoor.
Nay prithee do not pinch me so,
Good dear Devil, let me go;
And as I hope to wear the Bays,
I'll write a Sonnet in thy Praise.

Chorus:
Drive 'em hence, away, away
Let 'em sleep till break of Day.
Act II
Come all ye Songsters of the Sky,
Wake, and Assemble in this Wood;
But no ill-boding Bird be nigh,
None but the Harmless and the Good.

Trio:

May the God of Wit inspire,
The Sacred Nine to bear a part;
And the Blessed Heavenly Quire,
Shew the utmost of their Art.
While Echo shall in sounds remote,
Repeat each Note,
Each Note, each Note.

Chorus:
Now joyn your Warbling Voices all.

Song and Chorus:
Sing while we trip it on the Green;
But no ill Vapours rise or fall,
Nothing offend our Fairy Queen.

Night:
See, even Night her self is here,
To favour your Design;
And all her Peaceful Train is near,
That Men to Sleep incline.
Let Noise and Care,
Doubt and Despair,
Envy and Spight,
(The Fiends delight)
Be ever Banish'd hence,
Let soft Repose,
Her Eye-lids close;
And murmuring Streams,
Bring pleasing Dreams;
Let nothing stay to give offence.

Mystery:
I am come to lock all fast,
Love without me cannot last.
Love, like Counsels of the Wise,
Must be hid from Vulgar Eyes.
'Tis holy, and we must conceal it,
They profane it, who reveal it.

Secresie:
One charming Night
Gives more delight,
Than a hundred lucky Days.
Night and I improve the tast,
Make the pleasure longer last,
A thousand, thousand several ways.

Sleep:
Hush, no more, be silent all,
Sweet Repose has clos'd her Eyes.
Soft as feather'd Snow does fall!
Softly, softly, steal from hence.
No noise disturb her sleeping sence.
Act III
If Love's a Sweet Passion, why does it torment?
If a Bitter, oh tell me whence comes my content?
Since I suffer with pleasure, why should I complain,
Or grieve at my Fate, when I know 'tis in vain?
Yet so pleasing the Pain, so soft is the Dart,
That at once it both wounds me, and tickles my Heart.

I press her Hand gently, look Languishing down,
And by Passionate Silence I make my Love known.
But oh! I'm Blest when so kind she does prove,
By some willing mistake to discover her Love.
When in striving to hide, she reveals all her Flame,
And our Eyes tell each other, what neither dares Name.

Ye Gentle Spirits of the Air, appear;
Prepare, and joyn your tender Voices here.
Cath, and repeat the Trembling Sounds anew,
Soft as her Sighs and sweet as pearly dew,
Run new Division, and such Measures keep,
As when you lull the God of Love asleep.


Coridon:
Now the Maids and the Men are making of Hay,
We h've left the dull Fools, and are stolen away.
Then Mopsa no more
Be Coy as before,
But let us merrily Play,
And kiss the sweet time away.

Mopsa:
Why, how now, Sir Clown, what makes you so bold?
I'd have ye to know I'm not made of that mold.
I tell you again,
Maids must never Kiss no Men.
No, no: no Kissing at all;
I'll not Kiss, till I Kiss you for good and all.

Coridon:
Not Kiss you at all?

Mopsa:
No, no, no Kissing at all!

Coridon:
Why no Kissing at all?

Mopsa:
I'll not Kiss, till I Kiss you for good and all.

Coridon:
Should you give me a score,
'Twould not lessen your store,
The bid me chearfully, chearfully Kiss,
And take, and take, my fill of your Bliss.

Mopsa:
I'll not trust you so far, I know you too well;
Should I give you aninch, you'd soon take an Ell.
The Lordlike you Rule,
And laugh as the Fool,
No, no, &c.

Coridon:
So small a Request,
You must not, you cannot, you shall not deny,
Not will I admit of another Reply.

Mopsa:
Nay, what do you mean?
O fie, fie, fie!


A Nymph:
When I have often heard young Maids complaining,
That when Men promise most they most deceive,
The I thought none of them worthy of my gaining;
And what they Swore, resolv'd ne're to believe.
But when so humbly he made his Addresses,
With Looks so soft, and with Language so kind,
I thought it Sin to refuse his Caresses;
Nature o'ercame, and I soon chang'd my Mind.
Should he employ all his wit in deceiving,
Stretch his Invetion, and artfully feign;
I find such Charms, such true Joy in believing,
I'll have the Pleasure, let him have the Pain.
If he proves Prejur'd, I shall not be Cheated,
He may deceive himself, but never me;
'Tis what I look for, and shan't be defeated,
For I'll be as false and inconstant as he.


A Thousand Thousand ways we'll find
To Entertain the Hours;
No Two shall e're be known so kind,
No Life so Blest as ours.
Act IV
One of the Attendants:
Now the Night is chac'd away,
All salute the rising Sun;
'Tis that happy, happy Day,
The Birth-Day of King Oberon.

Two Others:
Let the Fifes, and the Clarions, and shrill Trumpets sound,
And the Arch of high Heav'n the Clangor resound.


Phoebus:
When a Cruel long Winter has frozen the Earth,
And Nature Imprison'd seeks in vain to be free;
I dart forth my Beams, to give all things a Birth,
Making Spring for the Plants, every Flower, and each Tree.
'Tis I who give Life, Warmth, and Vigour to all,
Even Love who rules all things in Earth, Air, and Sea;
Would languish, and fade, and to nothing would fall,
The World to its Chaos would return, but for me.

Hail! Great Parent of us all,
Light and Comfort of the Earth;
Before your Shrine the Seasons fall,
Thou who givest all Nature Birth.

Spring:
Thus the ever Grateful Spring,
Does her yearly Tribute bring;
All your Sweets before him lay,
The round his Altar, Sing and Play.

Summer:
Here's the Summer, Sprightly, Gay,
Smiling, Wanton, Fresh and Fair;
Adorn'd with all the Flowers of May,
Whose various Sweets perfume the Air.

Autumn:
See my many Colour'd Fields
And loaded Trees my Will obey;
All the Fruit that Autumn yields,
I offer to the God od Day.

Winter:
Now Winter comes Slowly, Pale, Meager, and Old,
First trembling with Age, and then quiv'ring with Cold;
Benumb'd with hard Forsts, and with Snow covere'd o'ver,
Prays the Sun to Restore him, and Sings as before.
Act V
Juno:
Thrice happy Lovers, may you be
For ever, ever free,
From that tormenting Devil, Jealousie.
From all that anxious Care and Strife,
That attends a married Life;
Be to one another true,
Kind to her as she to you,
And since the errors of this Night are past,
May he be ever Constant, she for ever Chast.
O let me weep, for ever weep,
My Eyes no more shall welcome Sleep;
I'll hide me from the sight of Day,
And sigh, and sigh my Soul away.
He's gone, he's gone, his loss deplore;
And I shall never see him more.

A Chinese Man:
Thus the gloomy World
At first began to shine,
And from the Power Divine
A Glory round about it hurl'd;
Which made it bright,
And gave it Birth in light.
Then were all Minds as pure,
As those Ethereal Streams;
In Innocence secure,
Not Subject to Extreams.
There was no Room then for empty Fame,
No cause for Pride, Ambition wanted aim.

Chinese Woman:
Thus Happy and Free,
Thus treated are we
With nature's chiefest Delights.
We nover cloy,
But renew our Joy,
And one Bliss another Invites.

Chorus:
Thus wildly we live,
Thus freely we give,
What Heaven as freely bestows.
We were not made
For Labour and Trade,
Which Fools on each other impose.

Chinese Man:
Yes, Daphne, in your Looks I find
The Charms by which my Heart's betray'd;
Then let not your Disdain unbind
The Prisoner that your Eyes have made.
She that in Love makes least Defence,
Wounds ever with the surest Dart;
Beauty may captivate the Sense,
But Kindness only gains the Heart.

1st Woman:
Har how all things with one Sound rejoyce,
And the World seems to have one voice.

2nd> Woman:
Hark now the Echoing Air a Triumph Sings,
And all around pleas'd Cupids clap their Wings.

Chorus:
Hark! Hark!

2nd Woman:
Sure the dull God of Marriage does not hear;

Both:
We'll rouse him with a Charm, Hymen appear!

Chorus:
Hymen appear!

Both:
Our Queen of Night commands thee not to stay, Appear!

Hymen:
See, see, I obey.
My torch has long been out, I hate
On loose dissembled Vows to wait,
Where hardly Love out-lives the Wedding-Night,
False Flames, Love's Meteors, yield my Torch no Light.

Both Women:
Turn then thine Eyes upon those Glories there,
And catching Flames will on thy Torch appear.

Hymen:
My Torch, indeed, will from such Brightness shine:
Love ne'er had yet such Altars, so divine.


They shall be as happy as they're fair;
Love shall fill all the Places of Care:
And every time the Sun shall display his Rising Light,
It shall be to them a new Wedding-Day;
And when he sets, a new Nuptial-Night.

More : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fairy-Queen
Buy : http://www.arkivmusic.com/classical/album.jsp?album_id=5881

Σάββατο, 10 Μαρτίου 2012

Tchaikovsky · The Sleeping Beauty


Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)

The Sleeping Beauty Ballet in a prologue and three acts, op. 66 (Complete Recording)
Russian National Orchestra · Mikhail Pletnev
La Bella Durmiente / Dornröschen / La Belle Au Bois Dormant
Libretto : Marius Petita & Ivan Vsevolozhsky, after Charles Perrault
 
If you like to download it message me here 
soundzgreg@yahoo.co.uk
No my rip thanks to the original uploader

Τρίτη, 6 Μαρτίου 2012

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi - Stabat Mater


Giovanni Battista Pergolesi - Stabat Mater


No 11 Duet

All my heart,inflamed and burning,
Saviour, now to Thee is turning;
Shield me in the Judgement Day.
By Thy Cross may i be guarded,
Meritless - yet be rewarded
Through The grace, O living Way.

No 12 Duet

While my body here is lying
Let my soul be swiftly flying
To Thy glorious Paradise.
Amen.

Attributed to Jacopone da Todi (c. 1230-1306)



Cagliostro (1975) Avi


Cagliostro (1975)
Director : Daniele Pettinari
Writers : Pier Carpi (novel), Enrica Bonaccorti
Stars : Bekim Fehmi, Curd Jurgens, Ida Galli, Anna Orso, Luigi Pistilli, 
Adolfo Lastretti, Rosanna Skyaffino, 
Alessandro Haber

Story : After attending esoterical studies with a wise man, Cagliostro, a mysterious Italian count, received the gift of supernatural powers. He started to travel all over Europe to heal the poor. But he is also a member of a pre-revolutionary lodge the aim of which is to give freedom to the populations of Europe. This cannot be tolerated by the 18th century's establishment and bought the Pope and the regal house of France try to eliminate him. So Cagliostro is locked up in a castle, while his wife is killed. But when in 1795 the door of his cell is opened there is nothing inside but a sword...


 Thanks
to the original uploader :



J.S.Bach: Matthäus-Passion - Leonhardt/LPB(1989Live)

Bach - Cantate BWV106 "Actus Tragicus"

Reiziger in Muziek: Gustav Leonhardt (1928 - 2012) Dutch

Gustav Leonhardt (1928 - 2012)


Gustav Leonhardt: 30 Μαΐου 1928 – 16 Ιανουαρίου 2012

Ο μεγάλος Ολλανδός τσεμπαλίστας, φορτεπιανίστας, μαέστρος, μουσικολόγος, δάσκαλος κι ερευνητής της παλαιάς μουσικής, δεν είναι πια μαζί μας. Ο κόσμος της μουσικής, με συγκίνηση έμαθε το θάνατό του, στο Άμστερνταμ, την Δευτέρα 16 Ιανουαρίου. Έφυγε σε ηλικία 83 ετών.

Ο Gustav Leonhardt υπήρξε η φιγούρα με την μεγαλύτερη επιρροή στην τεχνική και το στιλ της ερμηνείας του τσέμπαλου στον 20ου αιώνα. Ο κατάλογος των μαθητών του, μοιάζει με ένα Who is Who του τσέμπαλου και της παλαιάς μουσικής: οι Bob van Asperen, Christopher Hogwood, Philippe Herreweghe, Alan Curtis, Ton Koopman, Davitt Moroney, Martin Pearlman, Christophe Rousset, Andreas Staier, Skip Sempé είναι λίγοι μόνο από αυτούς. Χιλιάδες άλλοι τσεμπαλίστες ανά τον κόσμο, γνωστοί και άγνωστοι, είχαν το παίξιμο του Leonhardt ως σημείο αναφοράς, και τον ίδιο ως πηγή έμπνευσης και δημιουργικότητας.

Γεννήθηκε στις 30 Μαΐου 1928 στην βόρεια Ολλανδία. Σπούδασε τσέμπαλο με τον Eduard Müller στην Μουσική Ακαδημία ‘Schola Cantorum Basiliensis’, στη Βασιλεία της Ελβετίας. Έκτοτε η Ακαδημία έγινε παγκοσμίως γνωστή και η οδός όπου βρίσκεται, πήρε το όνομα του. Έκανε το ντεμπούτο του ως τσεμπαλίστας στη Βιέννη, το 1950. Πρωτοστάτησε στην αναβίωση της Παλαιάς Μουσικής με όργανα εποχής. To 1953 ίδρυσε το σύνολο Leonhardt Baroque Ensemble, με τον Άγγλο κόντρα-τενόρο Alfred Deller. Στο σύνολο συμμετείχε και ο Nicolaus Harnoncourt στο βιολοντσέλο, η σύζυγός του, Alice, στο βιολί, η σύζυγός του Leonhardt, Marie, επίσης στο βιολί, και άλλοι γνωστοί μουσικοί.

Ο Leonhardt ηχογράφησε πρώτος τα έργα για τσέμπαλο του Μπαχ, μέχρι τα μέσα της δεκαετίας του 1950: Παραλλαγές Goldberg, Η Τέχνη της Φούγκας, Αγγλικές και Γαλλικές σουίτες, Το Καλώς Συγκερασμένο Κλειδοκύμβαλο κα. Η ηχογράφηση της Τέχνης της Φούγκας ήταν μέρος της μουσικολογικής του έρευνας, με την οποία ισχυρίστηκε πως το έργο ήταν γραμμένο για πληκτροφόρο, μια παραδοχή που σήμερα χαίρει γενικής αποδοχής.

Μια άλλη πρωτιά, ήταν η ηχογράφηση του πλήρους κύκλου με τις Καντάτες του Μπαχ, σε συνεργασία με τον Harnoncourt.Το εγχείρημα διήρκησε περίπου 20 χρόνια, αρχίζοντας από το 1971. Οι δύο μαέστροι μοιράστηκαν τα έργα και τα ερμήνευσαν ο καθένας με το δικό του σύνολο, πάντα με όργανα εποχής. Μέσα από αυτές τις ηχογραφήσεις, τα όργανα εποχής έφτασαν στα αφτιά του κοινού, κάτι που τάραξε πραγματικά τα νερά –είναι ίσως η σημαντικότερη στιγμή στην μουσική ερμηνεία του 20ου αιώνα. Από τότε τα όργανα εποχής διαδόθηκαν, αλλά άρχισε και ένας γενικότερος προβληματισμός όσον αφορά τη χρήση τους, που πολλές φορές οδήγησε (και οδηγεί) σε πολεμική. Στις χώρες με μουσική παράδοση και καλλιέργεια, τα όργανα εποχής έλαχαν ευρείας αποδοχής, καθώς το μουσικό αφτί του κοινού αντιλήφθηκε τελικά τον ουσιαστικό, και όχι μουσειακό ή στείρο ακαδημαϊκό, ρόλο τους στην ερμηνεία. Έτσι, ο Leonhardt έβαλε τα θεμέλια αυτού που σήμερα ονομάζουμε Ιστορικά Ενήμερη Ερμηνεία (Historically Informed Performance), και περιλαμβάνει όργανα εποχής, ερμηνείες και αντιλήψεις που βασίζονται σε πραγματικές πηγές, κάτι που επηρεάζει όχι μόνο την εκτέλεση αλλά και τον αριθμό των ατόμων στα μουσικά σύνολα, το κούρδισμα, τη χρήση της χορωδίας (παιδιά σοπράνο αλλά και σολίστες-παιδιά), τη χρήση άντρα άλτο (κόντρα-τενόρου), την επανεμφάνιση ξεχασμένων οργάνων (θεόρβη, βιόλα ντα γκάμπα κα) και πολλούς άλλους παράγοντες.

Η Ιστορικά Ενήμερη Ερμηνεία σήμερα αποτελεί mainstream πρακτική και εφαρμόζεται όχι μόνο στο μπαρόκ και παλαιότερο ρεπερτόριο, αλλά στο σύνολο σχεδόν του ρεπερτορίου, μέχρι και τις αρχές του 20ου αιώνα. Η κοσμογονική αυτή αλλαγή στην μουσική πράξη, καθιστά τον Leonhardt μία από τις σημαντικότερες μουσικές προσωπικότητες του 20ου αιώνα, ως θεμελιωτή της.

Ως εκτελεστής πληκτροφόρων, ο Leonhardt ερμήνευσε σχεδόν όλο το ρεπερτόριο που εκτείνεται από την Ελισαβετιανή μουσική του 16ου αιώνα μέχρι και το Μότσαρτ, με έμφαση στην περίοδο του μπαρόκ και τη γαλλική μουσική.

Ο Leonhardt βραβεύτηκε με το Βασιλικό Μετάλλιο της Τιμής των Τεχνών και Επιστημών της Ολλανδίας, έλαβε τιμητικό στρατιωτικό αξίωμα στο Βέλγιο, και ανάμεσα σε πολλές άλλες διακρίσεις, ήταν doctor honoris causa σε πολλά πανεπιστήμια διεθνώς.

Το 1968 εμφανίστηκε στην ταινία των Jean-Marie Straub και Danièle Huillet, Το μικρό χρονικό της Άννας-Μαγκνταλένας Μπαχ, παίζοντας το ρόλο του ίδιου του Μπαχ.

Δίδαξε στο πανεπιστήμιο της Βιέννης και στη Βασιλική Μουσική Ακαδημία του Άμστερνταμ. Ηχογράφησε αμέτρητους δίσκους –περίπου 170 τίτλοι από τους οποίους οι 70 σόλο- κυρίως με τις εταιρίες Vanguard, Telefunken/Teldec, Deutsche Harmonia Mundi, Harmonia Mundi, EMI Electrola, Seon, RCA, Philips, Virgin Classics, Sony Classical και Alpha. Το classicalmusic.gr στο επόμενο διάστημα θα παρουσιάσει αρκετούς από αυτούς, ως ελάχιστο φόρο τιμής στο σπουδαίο καλλιτέχνη. Άποψή μας είναι, πως το 2012 θα έπρεπε να ανακηρυχθεί ως «Έτος Gustav Leonhardt».

Στην Ελλάδα είχε εμφανιστεί σε δύο ρεσιτάλ, το 1996 στο Μέγαρο Μουσικής Αθηνών, ερμηνεύοντας έργα για τσέμπαλο γάλλων μπαρόκ συνθετών. Και τα δύο ρεσιτάλ ήταν sold-out.

Μόλις πριν ένα μήνα, στις 12 Δεκεμβρίου 2011, εμφανίστηκε για τελευταία φορά σε ρεσιτάλ στο Παρίσι, ανακοινώνοντας τη λήξη της καριέρας του, λόγω ασθενούς υγείας.

Source :
http://www.classicalmusic.gr/?p=279

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Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Gustav Leonhardt, who has died aged 83, was a pioneer and pillar of the early music movement. As a harpsichordist, organist, scholar, conductor and teacher, he was a major figure, exercising very considerable influence on his contemporaries and juniors, and in particular making the Netherlands a focal centre for the performance of Baroque music, gathering round himself artists such as the recorder virtuoso Frans Brüggen, the viola da gamba player and cellist Anner Bylsma, the cellist and conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt and the Kuijken brothers – Barthold, Sigiswald and Wieland – all now pre-eminent in their fields.

Himself an intensely serious-minded musician, Leonhardt sought to present 17th- and 18th-century music on period instruments or copies thereof, and in accordance with the performance practice of those times, without concessions to later tastes – though he once said (perhaps somewhat questionably): "If one manages to be convincing, the interpretation sounds authentic: if one strives to be authentic, one will never be convincing."


 His own playing was marked by superlative technical assurance, lucidity, intellectual authority and gravitas – gaiety and humour came less easily to him – and initially he was criticised for too coolly dispassionate and austere a style: later, however, he himself acknowledged that he might have been over-severe and adopted a more relaxed, more expressive approach.

Many of today's leading harpsichordists were pupils of his, which sometimes led to awkward situations when he was on the jury of international competitions. One particular area in which he made a valuable contribution was the series of records of all Bach's cantatas that he and Harnoncourt conducted between 1972 and 1990 – a vast intégrale only later copied by others.

Leonhardt was born in 's-Graveland, near Hilversum. During the German occupation of the Netherlands in the second world war, he was unable to leave the house for nine months, sleeping on boards between the floors and with someone always on lookout. At the age of 18, after a brief classical education, he entered the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, in Switzerland, whose director was the conductor and musical patron Paul Sacher, to study organ and harpsichord with Eduard Müller and ensemble playing with August Wenzinger: three years later he went to Vienna to study conducting with Hans Swarowsky.

In 1950 he made his debut in Vienna playing Bach's Art of Fugue, which he stoutly maintained had been intended for the harpsichord, but of which the final incomplete fugue did not form part: he wrote a monograph on the subject and, 30 years later, recorded the work. He rapidly made a name as a harpsichordist, at the age of 24 became professor of the instrument at the Vienna Academy of Music, and the following year at the Amsterdam Conservatoire. There he settled permanently and was appointed organist at the Waalse Kerk, which boasted a splendid organ of 1733.

Around this time he started making his numerous recordings – a concerto by Johann Christian Bach under Sacher, the first of what would eventually be three recordings of Bach's Goldberg Variations – and, with a small ensemble, discs with the English contertenor Alfred Deller, from whom he declared he learned much about nuance and phrasing. He also formed the Leonhardt Consort, which, for 20 years, made historical instruments the norm for this period of the repertoire to such an extent that he later declared: "If you hear a modern violin, you are almost startled."


 A busy life was filled with concerts and recordings in Europe and the US, which he visited almost every year. In 1962, and again in 1969, he was visiting professor at Harvard University, and in 1968 appeared as Johann Sebastian Bach (to whom, however, he bore no facial resemblance) in Jean-Marie Straub and Danièle Huillet's film Die Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach. Often considered the finest Bach interpreter of his generation, Leonhardt performed a vast number of his compositions, not only keyboard and chamber music but also major works such as the B minor Mass, the Easter Oratorio and the St Matthew Passion.

However, his interests were by no means confined to Bach: among composers he regarded as his favourites were Frescobaldi, Froberger, Louis Couperin, Sweelinck (whose fantasias and toccatas he edited) and Rameau, all of whom he recorded with his usual scholarship and nobility; and to these may be added the names of Purcell, Byrd, Biber and CPE Bach. Among works he conducted were Rameau's Pygmalion, Lully's Bourgeois Gentilhomme and Campra's L'Europe Galante; and he made valuable recordings on historic organs in the Netherlands, north Germany and the Alpine region.

The general admiration in which he was held did not, however, preclude some criticism of excessive sobriety – the wit of French claveçinists seemed to elude him – of rather unsettling free rubatos, and in concerted works of over-heavy accentuation; and he puzzled many by his reluctance to play repeats in his recordings. But although it was through these that he reached the majority of music-lovers, his readings were generally more spontaneous in live performances, which continued until last December.

He is survived by his violinist wife, Marie.

• Gustav Leonhardt, harpsichordist, organist and conductor, born 30 May 1928; died 16 January 2012

Source :
http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2012/jan/17/gustav-leonhardt

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Leonhardt
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/Leonhardt-Gustav.htm