Παρασκευή, 29 Ιουλίου 2016

Albertus Magnus The Speculum Astronomiae


Albertus Magnus The Speculum Astronomiae

This  text here,  and  the  selection, p.  275 ff., of the main  astrological sources, previously appeared  as the edition and historical commentary  of Alberto Magno, Speculum astronomiae, S. Caroti, M. Pereira, S. Zamponi eds., under the supervision of P. Zambelli, Pisa, Domus Galilaeana,  1977, to which the reader  is referred for variants,  and for a detailed list of the fifty-three Mss. with their respective contents  (pp. 95-175),  titles and attributions  (pp.  177-181),  as well as  ancient  editions  (pp.  183-188)  and compendiums{ pp. 189-193).
There is also a glossary (pp. 197-206) and a and  a  list  of  authors  and  incipits  of  astrological  works  quoted  in  the Speculum (pp. 209-210).
I need only mention here that the edition of the text was based on the two oldest Mss., indicated in the brief table below as Land P; in other  words  L, which is paleographically  datable  to the years 1260-1280 and therefore to the work's composition, and P which is approximately  a generation  later  (end of the  13th Century  or early  14th century). Since the two Mss. are entirely independent,  their agreement establishes the text.
After an analysis of all the Mss. (see below a short list of the complete series) based on fifteen sample passages, we had  supplied a collectio variorum  of four more recent  15th. Century Mss., two of which Cumont had already used for his partial edition (G and M), and two other which are in the same tradition of the older independent ones (B = P, A = L) although they partake  of the widespread  process  of contamination  common to  15th Century Mss.

English translation by C.S.F. Burnett, K. Lippincott, D. Pingree and P. Zambelli
SPECULUM   ASTRONOMIAE   (ENGLISH   TRANSLATION)

PROEM

On  account   of certain   books,   which  lack  the  essentials   of science  [and] which,   since  they  are  hostile  to  the  true  wisdom   (that  is,  Our  Lord  Jesus Christ   who  is  the  image  of  the  Father   and   [His]   wisdom,   by  whom   He [the  Father]   made  the  secular  world),   are  rightly  suspect   by the  lovers  of the  Catholic   Faith,   it  has  pleased   some  great  men  to  accuse   some  other books  which  are perhaps   innocent.   For,  since  many  of the  previously   mentioned  books  by pretending   to be concerned   with  astrology   disguise  necromancy,   they  cause  noble  books   written   on  the  same  [subject   (astrology)] to  be  contaminated     in  the  eyes  of  good  men,   and  render   them   offensive and  abominable.    Therefore,    a  certain   man  zealous   for  faith  and  philosophy,  [putting]   each  in its proper   place,  of course,  has  applied  his  mind  towards   making   a list  of both  types  of books,   showing  their  number,   titles, incipits  and  the contents   of each  in general,  and  who  their  authors   were,  so that   the  permitted    ones  might  be  separated    from  the  illicit  ones;   and  he undertook    to  speak  according   to  the  will of God.

CHAPTER  ONE

There  are two  great  wisdom's   and  each  is defined  by the name  of astronomy. The  first  of these   deals  with  [1]  the  science   of the  configuration of the  first  heaven;   and  with  the  nature of its motion about the  poles  of the equator   of day  [and  night];   and  with  the  heavens placed  beneath it, which are placed  on other  poles  away  from  the  first. These  are the  heavens   of the fixed  and  wandering   stars,  whose  configuration is like the  configuration of spheres   enclosing   one  another. It  also  deals  with  [2]  the  science  of drawing circles  on  them  [the  heavens], some  of which  are  equidistant from  the equator   [i.e.:  the  tropics] and  some  concentric   with  it, but  inclined  from  it [i.e.:  the  ecliptic]; and  others have  an  eccentric center [i.e.:  the  eccentric referents], and  some  are  small  circles  placed on  the  circumferences of the eccentrics [i.e.:  the  epicycles],   and  others   are  similarly   placed   above   the center  of the  [concentric] equator   by the  [same]   amount   [i.e.:  distance]   as the   eccentricity    of  the   centers    of  the   eccentrics    [is]   from   it [i.e.: the equants]. [3]  And   [the  first  wisdom   deals]   with  the  size  of  each  of them [i.e.:  the  circles]   and  its  distance   from  the  earth;   and  how  the  planets   are moved   by  the  motion   of  [their]   deferent   circles  and  the  motion   of  [their] bodies on the  [epicyclic]   circles; and  what  happens   to them  because   of the variation    of  [their]   position[  s],  so  that   there   are  invisible projections    of rays  and  mutual   eclipses   of the  sun  and  the  moon   and  the  other  planets. [4]  And  [it  deals]   with  their  [i.e.:  the  planets]    situation   on  the  [deferent] circle  of their  apogee[  s]  so  that  greater   distance   (elevation),   less  distance (depression), latitudinal   motion   in one  direction   (inflection)   and  in the  opposite  direction   (reflection)   happen   there;   and  with  [their  (the  planets)   being]  on  [their]   small  circle [ s]  [i.e.:  epicycles], so  that  direct   motion,   station[ s] and  retrogression   [ s] happen   there.  [5]  [It deals]  with their  situation with  respect   to  the  Sun  so  that  combustion,    being  under   the  rays,  rising, setting  and  also  haustoria    (that  is, being  to the  right  of the  Sun  in the  east and  of the  Moon   in the  west) occurs there.   [6]  Also  [it  deals]   with  measuring  the  size  of the  sphere  of the  earth,  both  how  much  is habitable and inhabitable, together   with  all [its]  parts   both  of land  and  of sea,  and  with the  length  of its  [i.e.:  the  earth's]    diameter;    [7]  also  [it  deals]   with  measuring  the  size  of the  bodies   of the  planets   and  the  stars,  which  was  made possible   by using  the  size  of the  earth  as their  common   means   of measure. [8]  And  [it deals]   with  their  distance   from  the  earth  according   to  the  size of its  [i.e.:  the  earth's]   diameter. [9 ] Moreover, [it is concerned]    with  de- scribing  the  accidents   which  happen   to  the  entire  earth  due  to the  alternation  of day  and  night caused by the  spinning  of the  [equatorial]    circle;  and with  the  ascensions    of  the  signs  in  direct   circles  (which   are  hemispheres [related   to]  the  equinoctial   line  [i.e.:  right  ascensions   D; and  in oblique  circles  (which  are  hemispheres    [made  relative  to]  the  climes  [i.e.:  oblique  ascensions]);    and  with  the  division  of those  climes  according   to the  increase of a day  [which  is]  longer  by the  amount   of half  an  equal  hour;   and  with the  length  of the  times  of day  and  night  in  each  clime.  [10]  Moreover,    [it deals]  with  the  different  summer   created   twice  during  the  year  by the  transit  of  the   Sun  passing   over  the  zenith   in  the  regions   lying  between   the equator   [of the  day  and  night]   and  the  end  of the  second   clime;  [11]  and with  the  description    of  the  places   beyond   the  climes,  many   of  which   are covered   by  the  sea  and  have   a  single  day   and,   similarly,   a  single  night [lasting]   longer  than   one  or  more  revolutions    of the  heavens   because   the sun  does   not   set  in  them   for  a  long  period   of  time,  nor  does   it  rise  for another   long  [period   of]  time,  until  one  arrives  at  [that  point]   beneath   the poles  about  which  the first heaven  is moved,  where  the whole  year  becomes one  day  together   with  its night.  This  is one  great  wisdom,   which,  as I said, is defined  by the  name  of astronomy,    and  it cannot   be contradicted,     save by someone   who  opposes   the  truth.

In this pdf
http://www.mediafire.com/download/vcuzytls20p5bis/Albertus+Magnus+-+The+Speculum+Astronomiae+%28English%29.pdf
Δημοσίευση σχολίου